Thursday, January 29, 2015

Efficient Blind Compressed Sensing and $\ell_0$ Sparsifying Transform Learning

Efficient Blind Compressed Sensing Using Sparsifying Transforms with Convergence Guarantees and Application to MRI  by Saiprasad Ravishankar, Yoram Bresler

Natural signals and images are well-known to be approximately sparse in transform domains such as Wavelets and DCT. This property has been heavily exploited in various applications in image processing and medical imaging. Compressed sensing exploits the sparsity of images or image patches in a transform domain or synthesis dictionary to reconstruct images from undersampled measurements. In this work, we focus on blind compressed sensing, where the underlying sparsifying transform is apriori unknown, and propose a framework to simultaneously reconstruct the underlying image as well as the sparsifying transform from highly undersampled measurements. The proposed block coordinate descent type algorithms involve highly efficient closed-form optimal updates. Importantly, we prove that although the proposed blind compressed sensing formulations are highly nonconvex, our algorithms converge to the set of critical points of the objectives defining the formulations. We illustrate the usefulness of the proposed framework for magnetic resonance image reconstruction from highly undersampled k-space measurements. As compared to previous methods involving the synthesis dictionary model, our approach is much faster, while also providing promising reconstruction quality.

$\ell_0$ Sparsifying Transform Learning with Efficient Optimal Updates and Convergence Guarantees by Saiprasad Ravishankar, Yoram Bresler

Many applications in signal processing benefit from the sparsity of signals in a certain transform domain or dictionary. Synthesis sparsifying dictionaries that are directly adapted to data have been popular in applications such as image denoising, inpainting, and medical image reconstruction. In this work, we focus instead on the sparsifying transform model, and study the learning of well-conditioned square sparsifying transforms. The proposed algorithms alternate between a $\ell_0$ "norm"-based sparse coding step, and a non-convex transform update step. We derive the exact analytical solution for each of these steps. The proposed solution for the transform update step achieves the global minimum in that step, and also provides speedups over iterative solutions involving conjugate gradients. We establish that our alternating algorithms are globally convergent to the set of local minimizers of the non-convex transform learning problems. In practice, the algorithms are insensitive to initialization. We present results illustrating the promising performance and significant speed-ups of transform learning over synthesis K-SVD in image denoising.  
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