The two papers mentioned on Monday morning are, to a certain, opening the door for making backpropagation plausible within the human brain architecture and also potentially allow for much faster and scalable ways of learning. Here are four papers that are investigating this avenue as a result of these two papers ().
Understanding Synthetic Gradients and Decoupled Neural Interfaces by Wojciech Marian Czarnecki, Grzegorz Świrszcz, Max Jaderberg, Simon Osindero, Oriol Vinyals, Koray Kavukcuoglu
When training neural networks, the use of Synthetic Gradients (SG) allows layers or modules to be trained without update locking - without waiting for a true error gradient to be backpropagated - resulting in Decoupled Neural Interfaces (DNIs). This unlocked ability of being able to update parts of a neural network asynchronously and with only local information was demonstrated to work empirically in Jaderberg et al (2016). However, there has been very little demonstration of what changes DNIs and SGs impose from a functional, representational, and learning dynamics point of view. In this paper, we study DNIs through the use of synthetic gradients on feed-forward networks to better understand their behaviour and elucidate their effect on optimisation. We show that the incorporation of SGs does not affect the representational strength of the learning system for a neural network, and prove the convergence of the learning system for linear and deep linear models. On practical problems we investigate the mechanism by which synthetic gradient estimators approximate the true loss, and, surprisingly, how that leads to drastically different layer-wise representations. Finally, we also expose the relationship of using synthetic gradients to other error approximation techniques and find a unifying language for discussion and comparison.
Neuromorphic Deep Learning Machines by Emre Neftci, Charles Augustine, Somnath Paul, Georgios Detorakis
An ongoing challenge in neuromorphic computing is to devise general and computationally efficient models of inference and learning which are compatible with the spatial and temporal constraints of the brain. One increasingly popular and successful approach is to take inspiration from inference and learning algorithms used in deep neural networks. However, the workhorse of deep learning, the gradient descent Back Propagation (BP) rule, often relies on the immediate availability of network-wide information stored with high-precision memory, and precise operations that are difficult to realize in neuromorphic hardware. Remarkably, recent work showed that exact backpropagated weights are not essential for learning deep representations. Random BP replaces feedback weights with random ones and encourages the network to adjust its feed-forward weights to learn pseudo-inverses of the (random) feedback weights. Building on these results, we demonstrate an event-driven random BP (eRBP) rule that uses an error-modulated synaptic plasticity for learning deep representations in neuromorphic computing hardware. The rule requires only one addition and two comparisons for each synaptic weight using a two-compartment leaky Integrate & Fire (I&F) neuron, making it very suitable for implementation in digital or mixed-signal neuromorphic hardware. Our results show that using eRBP, deep representations are rapidly learned, achieving nearly identical classification accuracies compared to artificial neural network simulations on GPUs, while being robust to neural and synaptic state quantizations during learning.
Bidirectional Backpropagation: Towards Biologically Plausible Error Signal Transmission in Neural Networks by Hongyin Luo, Jie Fu, James Glass
The back-propagation (BP) algorithm has been considered the de-facto method for training deep neural networks. It back-propagates errors from the output layer to the hidden layers in an exact manner using the transpose of the feedforward weights. However, it has been argued that this is not biologically plausible because back-propagating error signals with the exact incoming weights is not considered possible in biological neural systems. In this work, we propose a biologically plausible paradigm of neural architecture based on related literature in neuroscience and asymmetric BP-like methods. Specifically, we propose two bidirectional learning algorithms with trainable feedforward and feedback weights. The feedforward weights are used to relay activations from the inputs to target outputs. The feedback weights pass the error signals from the output layer to the hidden layers. Different from other asymmetric BP-like methods, the feedback weights are also plastic in our framework and are trained to approximate the forward activations. Preliminary results show that our models outperform other asymmetric BP-like methods on the MNIST and the CIFAR-10 datasets.
Stochastic Synapses Enable Efficient Brain-Inspired Learning Machines by Emre O. Neftci, Bruno U. Pedroni, Siddharth Joshi, Maruan Al-Shedivat, and Gert Cauwenberghs
Recent studies have shown that synaptic unreliability is a robust and sufficient mechanism for inducing the stochasticity observed in cortex. Here, we introduce Synaptic Sampling Machines (S2Ms), a class of neural network models that uses synaptic stochasticity as a means to Monte Carlo sampling and unsupervised learning. Similar to the original formulation of Boltzmann machines, these models can be viewed as a stochastic counterpart of Hopfield networks, but where stochasticity is induced by a random mask over the connections. Synaptic stochasticity plays the dual role of an efficient mechanism for sampling, and a regularizer during learning akin to DropConnect. A local synaptic plasticity rule implementing an event-driven form of contrastive divergence enables the learning of generative models in an on-line fashion. S2Ms perform equally well using discrete-timed artificial units (as in Hopfield networks) or continuous-timed leaky integrate and fire neurons. The learned representations are remarkably sparse and robust to reductions in bit precision and synapse pruning: removal of more than 75% of the weakest connections followed by cursory re-learning causes a negligible performance loss on benchmark classification tasks. The spiking neuron-based S2Ms outperform existing spike-based unsupervised learners, while potentially offering substantial advantages in terms of power and complexity, and are thus promising models for on-line learning in brain-inspired hardware.
 Learning in the Machine: Random Backpropagation and the Learning Channel by Pierre Baldi, Peter Sadowski, Zhiqin Lu
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