We may need to Understanding Deep Neural Networks but we also need to understand Shallower networks
On the Fine-Grained Complexity of Empirical Risk Minimization: Kernel Methods and Neural Networks by Arturs Backurs, Piotr Indyk, Ludwig Schmidt
Empirical risk minimization (ERM) is ubiquitous in machine learning and underlies most supervised learning methods. While there has been a large body of work on algorithms for various ERM problems, the exact computational complexity of ERM is still not understood. We address this issue for multiple popular ERM problems including kernel SVMs, kernel ridge regression, and training the final layer of a neural network. In particular, we give conditional hardness results for these problems based on complexity-theoretic assumptions such as the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. Under these assumptions, we show that there are no algorithms that solve the aforementioned ERM problems to high accuracy in sub-quadratic time. We also give similar hardness results for computing the gradient of the empirical loss, which is the main computational burden in many non-convex learning tasks.
Diving into the shallows: a computational perspective on large-scale shallow learning by Siyuan Ma, Mikhail Belkin
Remarkable success of deep neural networks has not been easy to analyze theoretically. It has been particularly hard to disentangle relative significance of architecture and optimization in achieving accurate classification on large datasets. On the flip side, shallow methods have encountered obstacles in scaling to large data, despite excellent performance on smaller datasets, and extensive theoretical analysis. Practical methods, such as variants of gradient descent used so successfully in deep learning, seem to perform below par when applied to kernel methods. This difficulty has sometimes been attributed to the limitations of shallow architecture.
In this paper we identify a basic limitation in gradient descent-based optimization in conjunctions with smooth kernels. An analysis demonstrates that only a vanishingly small fraction of the function space is reachable after a fixed number of iterations drastically limiting its power and resulting in severe over-regularization. The issue is purely algorithmic, persisting even in the limit of infinite data.
To address this issue, we introduce EigenPro iteration, based on a simple preconditioning scheme using a small number of approximately computed eigenvectors. It turns out that even this small amount of approximate second-order information results in significant improvement of performance for large-scale kernel methods. Using EigenPro in conjunction with stochastic gradient descent we demonstrate scalable state-of-the-art results for kernel methods on a modest computational budget.
Finally, these results indicate a need for a broader computational perspective on modern large-scale learning to complement more traditional statistical and convergence analyses. In particular, systematic analysis concentrating on the approximation power of algorithms with a fixed computation budget will lead to progress both in theory and practice.
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