Deep Kernel Learning by Andrew Gordon Wilson, Zhiting Hu, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Eric P. Xing
We introduce scalable deep kernels, which combine the structural properties of deep learning architectures with the non-parametric flexibility of kernel methods. Specifically, we transform the inputs of a spectral mixture base kernel with a deep architecture, using local kernel interpolation, inducing points, and structure exploiting (Kronecker and Toeplitz) algebra for a scalable kernel representation. These closed-form kernels can be used as drop-in replacements for standard kernels, with benefits in expressive power and scalability. We jointly learn the properties of these kernels through the marginal likelihood of a Gaussian process. Inference and learning cost
O(n)for ntraining points, and predictions cost O(1)per test point. On a large and diverse collection of applications, including a dataset with 2 million examples, we show improved performance over scalable Gaussian processes with flexible kernel learning models, and stand-alone deep architectures.
Kernel Interpolation for Scalable Structured Gaussian Processes (KISS-GP) by Andrew Gordon Wilson, Hannes Nickisch
We introduce a new structured kernel interpolation (SKI) framework, which generalises and unifies inducing point methods for scalable Gaussian processes (GPs). SKI methods produce kernel approximations for fast computations through kernel interpolation. The SKI framework clarifies how the quality of an inducing point approach depends on the number of inducing (aka interpolation) points, interpolation strategy, and GP covariance kernel. SKI also provides a mechanism to create new scalable kernel methods, through choosing different kernel interpolation strategies. Using SKI, with local cubic kernel interpolation, we introduce KISS-GP, which is 1) more scalable than inducing point alternatives, 2) naturally enables Kronecker and Toeplitz algebra for substantial additional gains in scalability, without requiring any grid data, and 3) can be used for fast and expressive kernel learning. KISS-GP costs O(n) time and storage for GP inference. We evaluate KISS-GP for kernel matrix approximation, kernel learning, and natural sound modelling.
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