After watching Andrej Karpathy's slides on Generating Image Description using Deep Learning, I just came across this new arxiv preprint that changes a little bit the nonlinear functional within current deep neural networks to get very good results: Delving Deep into Rectifiers: Surpassing Human-Level Performance on ImageNet Classification by Kaiming He, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, Jian Sun
Rectified activation units (rectifiers) are essential for state-of-the-art neural networks. In this work, we study rectifier neural networks for image classification from two aspects. First, we propose a Parametric Rectified Linear Unit (PReLU) that generalizes the traditional rectified unit. PReLU improves model fitting with nearly zero extra computational cost and little overfitting risk. Second, we derive a robust initialization method that particularly considers the rectifier nonlinearities. This method enables us to train extremely deep rectified models directly from scratch and to investigate deeper or wider network architectures. Based on our PReLU networks (PReLU-nets), we achieve 4.94% top-5 test error on the ImageNet 2012 classification dataset. This is a 26% relative improvement over the ILSVRC 2014 winner (GoogLeNet, 6.66%). To our knowledge, our result is the first to surpass human-level performance (5.1%, Russakovsky et al.) on this visual recognition challenge.
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