Data is continuously being generated from sources such as machines, network traffic, application logs, etc. Timely and accurate detection of anomalies in massive data streams have important applications in preventing machine failures, intrusion detection, and dynamic load balancing. In this paper, we introduce a new anomaly detection algorithm, which can detect anomalies in a streaming fashion by making only one pass over the data while utilizing limited storage. The algorithm uses ideas from matrix sketching to maintain an approximate low-rank orthogonal basis of the data in a streaming model. Using this constructed orthogonal basis, anomalies in new incoming data are detected based on a simple reconstruction error test. We theoretically prove that our algorithm compares favorably with an offline approach based on global singular value decomposition updates. Additionally, we apply ideas from randomized low-rank matrix approximations to further speedup the algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach over other popular fastanomaly detection methods
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